Cystitis, or inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder is, unfortunately, one of the most common urogenital disorders of the beautiful half of humanity. According to the data cited by the world health organization (who), 50% of women in their lifetime suffer cystitis in one form or another (among men this figure is less than 1%!), moreover, 10-15% of patients diagnosed with "chronic cystitis". And this statistic, according to the who, every year will increase the morbidity. Why this disorder occurs in women more often than men, and is it possible to avoid cystitis and its relapses?
Physiology and nothing but
80% of those who went to the doctor with a diagnosis of "cystitis" – the fair sex, so cystitis is often called female disease. "Blame" to the anatomical features of the body: urethra (urethra) in women, short and wide than men. In addition, the vagina and the anus is close to urethra, creating favorable conditions for the "settling" and the aggressive multiplication of microorganisms in the bladder and urethra.
Causes of cystitis
The factors that cause cystitis, divided into infectious and non-infectious. The first pathogens are Escherichia coli, chlamydia, Ureaplasma or yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida. These microorganisms can reach the urinary bladder from the outside or from the inside, often with flow of blood, lymph from the hearth of inflammation in the kidneys or the genitals. To noninfectious causes include malfunctions in the immune system, metabolism and hormone production, nervous system disorders, Allergy, effects of radiation therapy and some other condition and disorders.
Urologists also call such predisposing factors of cystitis, such as:
"frivolous" clothes: wearing clothing that reveals the stomach and lower back, in the cool time of year; wearing tight things, tights, underwear;
sedentary lifestyle, sedentary work (lack of exercise);
promiscuous, unprotected sexual contacts;
failure to observe the rules of personal, including intimate hygiene;
a violation of emptying (presence of residual urine in the bladder);
frequent stress, overwork, lack of sleep;
chronic diseases of other organs and systems, especially the urogenital system;
- love very hot, spicy, heavily fried foods (its ingredients act on the bladder wall irritating).
The symptoms of cystitis
Cystitis, in contrast to the syndrome of overactive bladder (these disorders are often confused), as any internal inflammatory process is quite painful. It is accompanied by frequent, including night, the urge to the toilet, burning sensation, cramps during urination and after emptying, with a constant feeling of fullness of the bladder and a slightly elevated body temperature. The urine of the patient is muddy, sometimes mixed with blood and mucus.
Forms of cystitis
The nature of the disease cystitis is divided into acute and chronic. Acute cystitis starts suddenly, declaring itself to frequent trips to the bathroom (sometimes every 20-30 minutes), a slightly elevated body temperature and painful-unpleasant sensations in the bladder and perineum. If the inflammatory process gets higher, the kidneys, the threat temperature rises to 39-40 degrees Celsius. Chronic cystitis occurs with the same symptoms, but weaker expressed, with possible exacerbation by the type of acute cystitis. As a disorder secondary to chronic cystitis: the cause becomes any other disease of urinary system or kidneys.
Diagnosis and treatment of cystitis
Both the prerogative of a doctor, urologist or gynecologist. Self-treatment of cystitis is better not to do it, otherwise it may become chronic. Diagnosis of the disease includes General blood test (to detect signs of inflammation in the body), General and biochemical analysis of urine, urine cultures (for detection of the pathogen). Can also be assigned to ultrasound of the bladder and kidneys, letting the smear on the study of the vaginal flora – study of the flow of urine, cystoscopy is the inspection of the inner surface of the bladder with a special catheter with an optical and lighting systems, which is introduced through the urethra.
Treatment of cystitis includes:
non-drug methods: physical therapy, diet, sitz bath, and diuretic herbal teas;
drug therapy: analgesics, antibiotics on prescription;
surgical intervention (at a particularly difficult, severe cases).
In the chronic form of cystitis, the treatment will be based on the treatment of the underlying disease, such as genital tract infections. Patients with cystitis are assigned to treatment and preventive measures that strengthen the immune system.
Prevention of cystitis
Knowing the predisposing factors of cystitis, easy to understand, what are the recommendations of experts: to fight stress, to sleep, to exclude the possibility of hypothermia, improve the diet and drink plenty of pure non-carbonated water and fresh juices, and acidic fruit drinks. Also in the list of the doctor's advice is sure to be a reminder to observe personal hygiene and to refrain from uncomfortable body tight clothes tight clothes – these things impair blood circulation in the pelvic region. Of paramount importance is the timely treatment to the doctor if you see warning signs. Women and the absence of complaints it is recommended twice a year to undergo a preventive gynecological examination.
We wish you great health!