Cystitis in women is an inflammatory process that occurs in the bladder either acutely or chronically. The disease is also diagnosed in men, but much less often - the anatomy of the urethra plays a role. Most often, the pathology is infectious in nature: pathogenic bacteria penetrate the urinary system, and in most cases it is E. coli. The main feature of the course of cystitis in women is frequent relapses: in 50% of cases, patients visit a doctor about this disease twice a year. The symptoms of cystitis are quite pronounced, so the diagnosis is not difficult.
The causes of the development of the inflammatory process in the bladder in women can be:
- various infectious diseases, including sexually transmitted - penetration of pathogens occurs in an ascending line: from the vagina and urethra;
- the use of cosmetics and personal hygiene with detergents - cystitis in women, in this case, is a reaction of the body to aggressive substances in its composition;
- hypothermia against the background of reduced immunity - just being in the cold cannot be the cause, because cystitis in women develops only against the background of reduced immunity.
Provoking factors include:
- the presence of a chronic infection in the body, regardless of the location of the focus;
- recent gynecological inflammatory diseases, genital infections, acute respiratory viral infections;
- problems with the functionality of the hormonal system in women;
- inadequate personal hygiene;
- frequent change of sexual partners;
- a general decrease in immunity against the background of a disease, long-term forced use of certain drugs.
Cystitis in women is diagnosed much more often than in men and this is due to the anatomical features of the urinary system. Women have a short and wide urethra, the urethra, vagina and anus are very close together: pathogenic microorganisms penetrate the bladder very quickly and easily.
Separately, doctors consider cystitis after sexual intercourse, which can occur not only in women, but also in men. The classic symptoms of inflammation really scare people, they believe that an infection with a sexually transmitted disease has occurred. In fact, this cystitis in women and men is a reaction of the body to a "foreign" microflora. The inflammatory process is treated according to the standard regimen and is not a sexually transmitted disease.
Symptoms of Cystitis in Women
Regardless of the reasons, cystitis in women in an acute form has pronounced signs that are always severe:
- very frequent urination, which has nothing to do with the amount of fluid consumed - a symptom that helps to differentiate cystitis from an increase in blood sugar;
- violation of the flow of urine - when insisting, very little urine is released from the urethra, there is a feeling of fullness of the bladder;
- pain syndrome - burning, cramping when urinating, located in the groin, perineum and lower abdomen;
- itching, discomfort and burning sensation in the perineum - it is not an obvious sign, inherent in other diseases;
- urine becomes cloudy, may have an unpleasant odor, a symptom may be the presence of "strings" of blood in the urine;
- general weakness, a slight rise in body temperature is not an obvious sign.
If cystitis in women occurs in a chronic form, then all the listed signs and symptoms will not be pronounced, only with an exacerbation they will become intense. Chronic cystitis can manifest in women only by very frequent urination.
treatment of cystitis
Before the doctor prescribes treatment for cystitis, women's urine tests (general and for bacteriological culture) are performed. Diagnosis is not difficult, because cystitis is manifested by specific signs and symptoms - it is enough to differentiate the disease from other sexually transmitted infections. The appointment of ultrasound, cystoscopy, research for urogenital infections is done only if there are individual indications.
The treatment of the inflammatory process of the bladder in women consists of the selection of conservative therapy. Cystitis in women implies the following consultations:
- Antibacterial drugs. The duration of treatment is from 1 to 7 days, it all depends on the form and stage of cystitis in a particular woman.
- Symptomatic therapy. In women, cystitis is manifested by intense pain and discomfort, and treatment should aim to alleviate the patient's condition. To do this, use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, I recommend drinking plenty of water.
- Auxiliary means. Treatment may include plant-based uroseptics, bacterial lyophilisates. The evidence base for its effectiveness is insufficient, effectiveness has not been confirmed, although women have a milder course of the disease (symptoms and signs quickly become less intense) and a quick recovery.
Cystitis in women is treated within 7-10 days, and during this time, doctors recommend observing some dietary restrictions. Refusing alcohol, chocolate, hot/spicy spices, caffeine will be effective. You need to drink plenty of fluids to improve urination and speed up the process of washing away pathogenic bacteria.
If cystitis in women takes a long time and treatment is not carried out as directed by a doctor, serious and dangerous complications can occur:
- kidney failure;
- the formation of adhesions in the bladder;
- the formation of tumors of a benign or malignant nature;
- bleeding, ulcerative lesions of the bladder walls;
- urinary system dysfunction.
Cystitis is quite insidious in relation to the psycho-emotional state. Women develop complexes and fears, anxiety and irritation: frequent trips to the bathroom, the need to be constantly indoors, pain and discomfort during sexual intercourse all contribute to this.
To reduce the risk of developing cystitis in women, you should follow these simple prevention rules:
- do not cool down too much;
- go to the bathroom on the first call and don't take it;
- lead a healthy sex life;
- timely treatment of any infectious processes;
- follow the rules of personal hygiene.
Cystitis is in fact diagnosed more often in women because men have a slightly different anatomy of the urinary system. The treatment of the disease is not difficult if started in a timely manner and according to the doctor's prescription. The only way to help yourself before a visit to the doctor is to take painkillers. Antibiotics and other drugs are selected individually - only in this case, treatment in women will be effective, and cystitis does not turn into a chronic form of the course.