Causes of Cystitis

Bladder inflammation is easy to recognize, the symptoms of this disease are specific. The patient feels a frequent urge to urinate, but becomes increasingly unproductive. It is possible to "squeeze" a small amount of urine, sometimes blood is mixed with it. The process becomes painful, there is a pulling sensation in the pubic region.

pain with cystitis

Signs of Cystitis in Women

Cases of the disease in women are reported more frequently than in men. This is due to the female anatomy. The causes of cystitis in women are due to the fact that their urethra is shorter than that of men with a larger bladder. Its increased volume allows girls to urinate less often. The urine stream naturally removes pathogens from the urinary tract. Hence the current: women are less likely to go to the bathroom, pathogens that enter the urethra are rarely eliminated, and a short urethra is a quick way to "deliver" to the urinary organ.

Other causes of cystitis in women: microtrauma of the urethra, infections that can penetrate the anus, vagina. Typical signs of the onset and development of cystitis:

  • pain in the lower abdomen;
  • sharp painful sensations during the urination process;
  • burning of the urethra;
  • unexpected and uncontrolled discharge of urine drops;
  • urine is dark in color, sometimes there is a mixture of blood;
  • an increase in temperature (in more acute and severe cases).
pain with cystitis

Inflammation symptoms in men

The causes of the disease in men differ from women. The chances of getting sick increase with age. The disease is facilitated by:

  • urolithiasis disease;
  • chronic genital infections;
  • stricture (narrowing or complete closure) of the urethra;
  • weakening of immunity;
  • pyelonephritis or renal tuberculosis.

Symptoms appear as follows:

  • frequent trips to the bathroom (up to 40 times a day), but the single volume of urine as a result is small, around 10-15 ml;
  • urinary incontinence ("drip");
  • difficulty, pain when urinating;
  • for the bladder to start emptying, you have to make an effort;
  • the beginning and end of the process are accompanied by pain;
  • temperature (in acute forms).

The reasons

A common cause of infectious cystitis is Escherichia coli, less frequently chlamydia, candida fungi, and ureaplasma. In addition to infections, damage to the urethra, hypothermia and chronic diseases, other causes also lead to inflammation:

  • the outer opening of the urinary tract is constantly exposed to (mechanical) irritation;
  • the patient is allergic to intimate cosmetics, vaginal deodorant, soap, talcum powder and even toilet paper;
  • in women, one of the causes of the onset of the disease, when urinary incontinence occurs, is called psychosomatic, that is, the release of experiences on the physical plane is the body's reaction to problems;
  • cystitis in a child can cause an anatomical abnormality: urine is injected back into the ureters and the process of its output is stopped.
red urine with cystitis

hemorrhagic cystitis

If blood impurities are visible during urination, the disease is hemorrhagic. Blood appears not only at the end of the urine ejection, but also throughout the process, while all the fluid is tinged with light pink or cloudy, rusty (these cases are accompanied by a foul odor of discharge). If bleeding is severe, blood clots are released.

With prolonged illness with constant blood loss, the patient develops iron-deficient anemia. The causes of hemorrhagic cystitis are viral inflammations. This is not uncommon in older men with a history of prostate adenoma. Radiation exposure by taking cytostatics (drugs used in oncology, often for pelvic tumors) can cause bloody cystitis. Often, the hemorrhagic form of the disease is accompanied by chills and fever.

If you start the disease, not only will anemia occur, but hemorrhagic cystitis will develop into a chronic form. Start treatment on time. Complications that can accompany bleeding cystitis:

  • Bladder plugging, blocked by a blood clot from your lumen. Urine does not come out, the bladder is strongly stretched.
  • Infection: An infection enters through broken blood vessels, which can lead to blood poisoning.


Purulent inflammation of the bladder mucosa, acute cystitis is the most frequent manifestation of the disease. At the same time, there are no serious concomitant illnesses. More often, this form of the disease occurs in women. Up to 36 million cases of acute cystitis are diagnosed in Russia each year. Symptoms last for about a week and are diagnosed based on symptoms and urinalysis.

warming the abdomen with cystitis


This form of the disease involves constant inflammation of the urinary organ with temporary remissions and exacerbations. Chronic cystitis occurs as a complication of some other disease, meaning the appearance of a serious weakness in the immune system. Chronic inflammation develops in the context of diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The triggering factor for the manifestation of symptoms of previously transferred cystitis is hypothermia.

The chronic course of the disease is complicated by malnutrition, stress, hypovitaminosis and impaired metabolism. How the disease progresses is influenced by the composition of the human microflora, its biological properties. Officially, a diagnosis such as "chronic cystitis" does not exist in medical reference books; it is more a colloquial way to refer to a repeated recurrence of acute cystitis.

what causes cystitis

The bladder is an organ resistant to external influences, covered by a special protective mucous membrane. The penetration of bacteria and viruses is "provided" by the patient himself. The causes of cystitis are infections, but the factors that cause them are more associated with a lifestyle in which the person reduces his own defense. A long, exhausting diet, sitting on cold surfaces, constant fatigue, stress - it all leads to illness.

provocative factors

Factors that predispose to the onset and development of urinary system inflammation:

  • There has been a longstanding habit of "holding on", of putting off going to the bathroom, even if you really want to. At the same time, muscle fibers are stretched too much, blood circulation in the bladder wall is disturbed.
  • Violation of personal hygiene, when microbes from Organs genitals, rectum and anus roam unobstructed into the bladder. In this case, the prevention of contamination is the best medicine for the disease.
  • Foreign bodies in the lumen of the urethra.
  • Swelling in the urethra, bladder.
  • Seasonal decrease in immunity, weakening of the body with diseases of various origins.
  • Menopause, pregnancy, postpartum period.
  • Wear tight, uncomfortable clothing, tights and tight underwear.

Causes of cystitis after intercourse

It is known that cystitis after sex manifests itself in women as a consequence of vaginal intimacy. The first to suffer are those whose urethra is located in a special way, the urethra is open in front of the vagina. This is a variant of the norm, but with this structure of the genitourinary system, the vaginal contents enter the urethra and then the bladder. In this case, the woman and her partner need to be careful to avoid mechanical damage to the vagina.