Cystitis is a disease in which the bladder wall is inflamed. As a rule, in cystitis, your mucous membrane becomes inflamed.
This bladder disease occurs quite frequently: as evidenced by medical statistics, about 35% of people aged between 20 and 45 years old suffer from cystitis. As a rule, most of the time girls and women learn from experience what cystitis is. At the same time, cystitis in men is a very rare phenomenon. These characteristics of the disease are due to the anatomical difference in the structure of the genitourinary system in both sexes. Cystitis in women is caused by the very short length of the urethra, as well as the fact that its opening is close to the anus. As a result, bacteria can easily enter the bladder and trigger an infection. Cystitis occurs more frequently in sexually active women, pregnant women and women who are in the postmenopausal process.
In general, as physicians testify, among urological diseases, cystitis is the most common.
Types of cystitis
If cystitis in women and men manifests itself sharply in a healthy bladder, in this case we must talk about primary cystitis. If inflammation of the bladder occurs as a result of a specific urinary disorder, secondary cystitis occurs. In addition, secondary cystitis develops as a result of inflammation of other organs in the human genitourinary system.
Due to certain peculiarities of anatomy and physiology, primary cystitis occurs more frequently in young women. Secondary cystitis in men occurs more frequently as a consequence of the inflammatory process of the prostate. This disease is typical of older men.
If we consider the nature of the disease, cystitis is usually divided into acute and chronic.
In addition, there is a classification of cystitis according to its origin. Mainly diagnosed cystitis, which is of infectious origin. But sometimes there are inflammations in the bladder, which develop as a result of chemical influence (as a result of treatment with certain drugs), thermal influence (consequence of washing the bladder with very hot liquid). Burns can cause cystitis, as well as damage to the mucous membrane of the bladder. However, even with these phenomena, an infection plays a decisive role in the development of the disease, which quickly sets in.
Causes of cystitis
Signs of cystitis appear in humans due to exposure to infections, in particular Escherichia coli. However, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder often occurs due to the manifestation of staphylococcal, enterococcal and streptococcal infections. But today, experts have proven that infection alone is not a sufficient reason for the manifestation of cystitis in humans. For cystitis to develop, it is necessary to have a series of concomitant factors that cause a decrease in the general resistance of the organism. Among these factors, it should be noted a previously transferred infectious disease, general exhaustion and severe overwork, vitamin deficiency and other reasons.
Cystitis in women is caused by several factors. Thus, the disease can manifest itself after previously transmitted inflammatory diseases of a gynecological, urological or venereal nature. Cystitis often develops after gonorrhea, urethritis, adenexitis, endometritis and a number of other diseases. Often, these diseases continue to develop cystitis if they are not completely cured, or if the person tries to treat the disease on his own, without consulting a doctor and prescribing the correct course of therapy.
Cystitis is often the result of severe hypothermia. The likelihood of developing the disease is especially high after hypothermia in the pelvic region. Therefore, a woman can simply sit on cold stones for about twenty minutes, and after a while, an inflammation of the bladder will almost certainly appear.
Frequent constipation, which lasts for several days, is also a contributing factor to the subsequent development of cystitis. To prevent the appearance of cystitis, inadequate cleaning should be avoided after defecating: to avoid infection, it is necessary to clean only from front to back, but not vice versa. During menstruation, the woman must often change the tampons or pads, as in this case, the risk of infection also increases.
Cystitis in women can even be caused by wearing very tight underwear and tights for a long time. In addition, every woman, in order to avoid this unpleasant disease, must follow the correct regimen of daily urination. You need to urinate at least five times a day. In fact, with very long intervals between going to the bathroom, the infection can enter the bladder and, as a result, inflammation occurs.
Furthermore, cystitis in children and women manifests itself in the presence of other conditions that negatively affect the state of the human immune system. Thus, the causes of cystitis can be regular long-term sports training, causing excessive effort, constant lack of sleep, unhealthy eating, constant stressful situations and other reasons.
At the same time, the causes of cystitis in men are chronic inflammatory processes of organs located in the vicinity. Thus, cystitis in men can manifest itself with inflammation of the intestines, prostate, testis and epididymis, urethra. It is also caused by the following reasons: presence of obstructions in the urinary tract or enlarged prostate. Cystitis in men is usually more severe than in women.
The main symptoms of cystitis are very frequent and painful urination. They appear in most cases after significant hypothermia. A healthy person usually urinates five to six times a day. More frequent visits to the bathroom may indicate that bladder inflammation is developing. In addition to polyuria (very frequent urination), pain when urinating manifests itself as symptoms of cystitis; in addition, patients suffer pains in the lower abdomen, which are pulled by nature. In a patient with cystitis, the urine becomes cloudy, sometimes a mixture of blood can be found in it. In addition, during urination, a burning sensation may be felt, a person complains that he cannot hold his urine.
Acute cystitis is usually manifested by chills and increased body temperature to subfebrile. Sometimes, in this case, mild symptoms of cystitis are observed: patients have only pain in the lower abdomen. Acute cystitis can heal on its own: its manifestations simply disappear after a few days. But, in most cases, acute cystitis lasts seven to nine days, while the correct treatment regimen is necessary. However, if the patient's body temperature exceeds 38 degrees, it is necessary to consult a urologist immediately to rule out the presence of upper urinary tract infection.
In the chronic form of the disease, the symptoms of cystitis are caused by the disease that caused the inflammation that develops in the bladder. In addition, the signs of cystitis, in this case, are determined by the patient's general condition. They are usually similar to the symptoms of acute cystitis, but less pronounced.
In chronic cystitis, the disease may recur periodically, while the patient's resting time is usually replaced by exacerbations of cystitis.
In addition to these forms, slow cystitis is sometimes diagnosed, which is not characterized by pronounced exacerbations. However, patients still constantly complain about frequent urination, in which there is mild pain. In addition, signs of cystitis in this way are periodic jumps in body temperature to subfebrile, as well as a general feeling of weakness and weakness.
Cystitis in children, as a rule, causes health problems and general weakness in the child. The patient is irritated, appetite decreases and sometimes vomiting occurs. In addition, the child complains of pain when urinating. If cystitis is suspected in children, parents should definitely consult a doctor, as similar symptoms are typical of other diseases.
Diagnosis of cystitis
Cystitis is usually easy to diagnose. With cystitis in acute and chronic form, the patient clearly determines the presence of characteristic symptoms, so a specialist, after making a detailed survey, can suggest this diagnosis. It is also important to study the patient's anamnesis, because in the chronic form of cystitis, the disease that preceded it also occurs.
If a specialist suspects cystitis in a patient, a urinalysis should be performed to determine if there is inflammation. The diagnosis of cystitis is confirmed if leukocytes and pathogenic microorganisms are present in the patient's urine.
Treatment of cystitis
When treating cystitis, the first thing a doctor prescribes is antibacterial drugs to eliminate bladder infection and prevent the development of inflammation. When prescribing antibiotics, it is also important to consider the need to take anti-inflammatories. In addition, in some cases, the doctor considers it advisable to use medications for a long time that stimulate blood flow to the bladder. These drugs must be taken for at least thirty days. In addition, complex treatment includes the use of adrenergic blockers to relieve cravings.
In the treatment of chronic cystitis, it is important, first of all, to cure the disease that caused the transition from cystitis to the chronic form. In this case, complex therapy includes antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as vitamins, drugs that improve the blood supply to the bladder. Physiotherapy methods are often used. Sometimes, with prolonged chronic cystitis, the patient's bladder shrinks and shrinks. In this case, only surgical treatment of the disease is necessary.
Treatment of cystitis with folk remedies
Cystitis is an inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the bladder, one of the most common urological diseases. The most common occurrence of cystitis is associated with E. coli and microbes of the genus Klebsiella. Much more often, the disease manifests itself in women as a result of the special anatomical structure of the female body: through the urethra, the infection enters the bladder much more easily. Sometimes cystitis also manifests in men as a condition that accompanies inflammation in the seminal vesicles, the prostate, the urethra and the epididymis.
The manifestations of cystitis differ from the symptoms of other diseases: in cystitis, the individual has a frequent urge to urinate, during which acute pain is felt. The patient produces cloudy urine, which can have an unpleasant odor. In rare cases, body temperature may increase. The course of cystitis treatment for women is prescribed by a gynecologist, and for men - by a urologist. After conducting the necessary research, drug therapy is performed - cystitis pills are prescribed individually.
Treatment of cystitis at home
However, it is also possible to carry out the parallel treatment of cystitis at home with folk remedies. At the same time, alternative treatment methods are very effective in helping to eliminate cystitis.
Women are encouraged to go to the bathroom as often as possible, avoiding long intervals between urine. It is advisable for daily use to choose cotton underwear that provides good air exchange and, consequently, the growth of microbes is reduced. You should not wear casual pillows in the heat of the summer, it is also advisable not to wear very tight pants and jeans. When washing your underwear, it is very important to wash them as completely as possible after using the detergent.
In case of cystitis, it is necessary to adjust the diet. If the patient has an acute form of cystitis, you should stop eating solid foods for a while. When the temperature rises, you just need to drink water. After normalizing your body temperature, you can introduce natural vegetable juices into your diet. Carrot, beet juice is recommended. Cucumber juice with added honey can be a very effective diuretic.
The cystitis diet involves excluding spicy, salted and smoked meats from the diet. The cystitis diet involves daily use of about three liters of fluid. Nutrition for cystitis involves a very low acid content. Canned foods during the treatment of the disease should also be excluded from the diet.
For the preparation of a drink useful for cystitis, juniper extract can be used (1 teaspoon of the product should be diluted in a glass of water), but the treatment of cystitis during pregnancy with this remedy is notcan be accomplished. In addition to drinking plenty of fluids for cystitis, warming is recommended: you can place a hot heating pad in the area where the bladder is located. Hot sitz baths are also useful.
Treatment of cystitis with aromatherapy
The use of essential oils has long been found to have an antiseptic effect on the body. Aromatic oils for cystitis should be used immediately after the first signs of the disease appear. During a heating bath, add a few drops of essential oil before immersion in water. Usually, no more than ten drops are added to the bath. As the most suitable aromatic oils for the treatment of cystitis, lemon can be taken (this oil is used in smaller quantities - no more than five drops), chamomile, bergamot oil. Sandalwood oil is also effective in treating cystitis at home.
In case of severe exacerbation of cystitis and pronounced discomfort, you can prepare a compress, which is placed on the lower abdomen. Add 3-5 drops of lavender or chamomile oil to a hot compress. However, in the process of using aromatic oils to treat cystitis, it should be noted that not all oils are recommended for use during pregnancy. Therefore, every woman, who begins treatment of cystitis during pregnancy with aromatic oils, should first consult a doctor.
Cystitis treatment with herbs
The basic principle of treating cystitis with folk remedies is the use of herbs for the preparation of infusions and decoctions, which are used to drink in abundance.
If the symptoms of the disease are not very pronounced, you may not need a cystitis medication. Drinking lots of herbal teas regularly can help treat inflammation. As such tea, you can use a decoction of chamomile, meadowsweet. Buku herb is also recommended as a treatment for cystitis with folk remedies, which have a soothing effect on the mucous membrane. With the regular use of a decoction of this herb, treatment with antibiotics or other pills for cystitis can be avoided. In addition, for the treatment with herbs, a decoction of bearberry is recommended, which is a very strong antiseptic. An alkaline effect in the urine of a person with cystitis is exerted by celery seeds, roots and marshmallow leaves. Make sure you eat a few cloves of garlic every day to help fight infection.
The black poplar buds help to cure cystitis, from which the infusion is prepared and taken half a glass before meals. You can also prepare a tincture with kidney alcohol and take about thirty drops three times a day.
One of the herbal collections includes equal parts of St. John's wort, chamomile, blueberry leaves and black poplar buds. You can prepare the broth as follows: add half a liter of boiling water to two tablespoons of the chopped collection. The collection is infused in a thermos overnight. The broth should be taken up to five times a day for one third of a glass before meals.
The second collection of herbs for cystitis in women includes two parts of birch, juniper, bearberry and one part of horsetail herb. The broth is prepared as in the first case. You can take up to four times a day, a third of a glass before meals.
Another effective infusion for the treatment of cystitis in women and men is prepared with five parts of birch and juniper leaves and two parts of parsley seeds. The preparation and dosage of the infusion are similar to the previous recipes.
Another collection of herbs for the treatment of cystitis includes five parts of St. John's wort and rosemary, one part of flax seeds, three parts of pine and mint buds, two parts of ponytail. Drinking this collection, prepared in the same way as the herbal infusions described above, should be a quarter cup before meals for two months.
The Rosa Mosqueta decoction is a good remedy for cystitis. To do this, take four tablespoons of crushed rosehips and fill them with a liter of water. Boil the roots for about fifteen minutes. After cooling and straining, the broth is taken half a glass four times a day before meals.
For the preparation of medicinal decoctions for the treatment of cystitis, larkspur grass, corn stigmas, linden flowers, lungs, bean pods, sage leaves, bananas, absinthe and centaury grass are also used.
If urination is difficult, use an effective herbal medicine recipe. Dried elderberry flowers are poured into boiling water and infused for one hour. The infusion should be drunk for two weeks, two tablespoons. And as a diuretic, a decoction of blackcurrant leaves is used. Black currant fruits are also effective.
Treatment of cystitis during pregnancy
During pregnancy, the general immunity of the woman, as a rule, decreases markedly, therefore, cystitis often manifests itself precisely during the period of pregnancy. Every pregnant woman should be very attentive to her symptoms. Increased urination is typical of all pregnant women, but if discomfort occurs when urinating in the bladder region, the woman needs to start treating cystitis immediately, as acute cystitis, in the absence of necessary therapy, often turns into achronic form. In turn, chronic cystitis is much more difficult to treat. The treatment of cystitis during pregnancy should be carried out exclusively under the guidance of a doctor.
In case of exacerbation of cystitis, the woman should, at least one meter, stay in bed for a day, try not to lift any weight and wash herself constantly with warm water.
When treating cystitis, pregnant women are advised to eat blueberry berries, which effectively replace some cystitis pills.
A pregnant woman should be very attentive to the issue of cystitis prevention and in no case should she avoid severe hypothermia.
Other folk remedies for cystitis
There are some effective recipes that have long been used by people to treat cystitis. The following method has a very noticeable effect. It is necessary to take two halves of a red brick and heat it strongly, placing it on the fire. After heating, the halves are folded in a metal bucket. The edges of the bucket should be wrapped in a cloth and laid on the bucket, wrapped in a woolen blanket so that the entire lower part of the body is covered. The procedure lasts as long as you feel the heat coming from the bucket.
As a cure for cystitis, turnip juice is also used, which is boiled on fire for five minutes. This juice is consumed two tablespoons a day.
Another remedy is warm milk mixed with a few drops of birch tar. This drug is drunk in a third of a glass, three times a day.
In addition, black radish juice mixed with an equal part of honey is used to treat cystitis; a mixture of celery and honey seeds.
Shilajit is sometimes used to treat cystitis. A solution of one gram of mummy in a glass of water can be used for hygienic showers. And from 0, 3 g of mummy and half a teaspoon of milk mixed with flour, candles are prepared, which must be inserted into the anus.
Olive oil is a useful remedy for cystitis - a tablespoon should be taken half an hour before meals every day. Several times a day, you can take the ground parsley seed powder, the dose of which must be very small - on the tip of a knife.
Cystitis during pregnancy
Cystitis during pregnancy manifests itself due to a general decrease in the body's defenses. In the process of pregnancy, this disease is usually very difficult. According to statistics, cystitis during pregnancy occurs in 10% of cases. At the same time, especially those women who, before pregnancy, already had cystitis, suffer from this disease. If the woman has a chronic form of cystitis, the disease worsens due to decreased immunity during pregnancy. Cystitis during pregnancy also occurs in the context of a sudden change in hormonal origin, changes in the microflora of the vagina.
The correct approach to treat cystitis during pregnancy is considered to be very important. Self-medication and neglect of therapy are very dangerous for pregnant women. After all, cystitis due to the peculiarities of the functioning of the pregnant woman's body can lead to the later development of more dangerous diseases. In addition, the lack of treatment for the disease can further impair the delivery process, complicating its course. Women who ignored the manifestations of cystitis during pregnancy were more likely to have children with low birth weight.
Prevention of cystitis
As a preventive measure, it is important to avoid the manifestation of the factors that are the causes of cystitis. In order not to learn from experience what cystitis is, it is important not to allow sudden and prolonged hypothermia, not to delay emptying the bladder. Genital hygiene, as well as the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, is of decisive importance for the prevention of cystitis. People who spend most of their time sitting should diversify the day with periodic warm-up minutes. It is necessary to treat all inflammatory diseases in time, while the treatment must be prescribed by a specialist and carried out in full.
Ascending pyelonephritis becomes the most frequent and dangerous complication of cystitis. In an acute inflammatory process of the bladder, its functions are impaired and, as a consequence, vesicoureteral reflux arises. With a similar phenomenon, during bladder contractions, urine enters the ureter and even the renal pelvis. Due to edema of the mucous membrane, the intramural section is compressed and the passage of urine is disturbed. As a result, pressure in the pelvis increases and the patient begins to develop acute pyelonephritis. It is necessary to treat such complication exclusively in a specialized hospital.